Philosophy
Sibling Action: The Genealogical Structure of Modernity by Stefani Engelstein
Epicureanism: A Very Short Introduction by Catherine Wilson
Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction by Michael Allingham
Angela Sumegi, “Understanding Death: An Introduction to Ideas of Self and the Afterlife in World Religions”
John S. Wilkins, “Species: The Evolution of the Idea, Second Edition”

Sibling Action: The Genealogical Structure of Modernity by Stefani Engelstein

English | December 5, 2017 | ISBN: 0231180403 | PDF | 376 pages | 11.8 MB

The sibling stands out as a ubiquitousyet unacknowledgedconceptual touchstone across the European long nineteenth century. Beginning in the late eighteenth century, Europeans embarked on a new way of classifying the world, devising genealogies that determined degrees of relatedness by tracing heritage through common ancestry. This methodology organized historical systems into family trees in a wide array of new disciplines, transforming into siblings the closest contemporaneous terms on trees of languages, religions, races, nations, species, or individuals. In literature, a sudden proliferation of siblingsoften incestuously inclinednegotiated this confluence of knowledge and identity. In all genealogical systems the sibling term, not quite same and not quite other, serves as an active fault line, necessary for and yet continuously destabilizing definition and classification.
In her provocative book, Stefani Engelstein argues that this pervasive relational paradigm shaped the modern subject, life sciences, human sciences, and collective identities such as race, religion, and gender. The insecurity inherent to the sibling structure renders the systems it underwrites fluid. It therefore offers dynamic potential, but also provokes counterreactions such as isolationist theories of subjectivity, the political exclusion of sisters from fraternal equality, the tyranny of intertwined economic and kinship theories, conflicts over natural kinds and evolutionary speciation, and invidious anthropological and philological classifications of Islam and Judaism. Integrating close readings across the disciplines with panoramic intellectual history and arresting literary interpretations, Sibling Action presents a compelling new understanding of systems of knowledge and provides the foundation for less confrontational formulations of belonging, identity, and agency.

Epicureanism: A Very Short Introduction by Catherine Wilson

English | February 1, 2016 | ISBN: 019968832X | EPUB | 144 pages | 2.3 MB

Epicureanism is commonly associated with a carefree view of life and the pursuit of pleasures, particularly the pleasures of the table. However it was a complex and distinctive system of philosophy that emphasized simplicity and moderation, and considered nature to consist of atoms and the void. Epicureanism is a school of thought whose legacy continues to reverberate today.
In this Very Short Introduction, Catherine Wilson explains the key ideas of the School, comparing them with those of the rival Stoics and with Kantian ethics, and tracing their influence on the development of scientific and political thought from Locke, Newton, and Galileo to Rousseau, Marx, Bentham, and Mill. She discusses the adoption and adaptation of Epicurean motifs in science, morality, and politics from the 17th Century onwards and contextualises the significance of Epicureanism in modern life.

Choice Theory: A Very Short Introduction by Michael Allingham

English | November 28, 2002 | ISBN: 0192803034 | EPUB | 144 pages | 3 MB

We make choices all the time – about trivial matters, about how to spend our money, about how to spend our time, about what to do with our lives. And we are also constantly judging the decisions other people make as rational or irrational. But what kind of criteria are we applying when we say that a choice is rational? What guides our own choices, especially in cases where we don’t have complete information about the outcomes? What strategies should be applied in making decisions which affect a lot of people, as in the case of government policy?
This book explores what it means to be rational in all these contexts. It introduces ideas from economics, philosophy, and other areas, showing how the theory applies to decisions in everyday life, and to particular situations such as gambling and the allocation of resources.

Angela Sumegi, “Understanding Death: An Introduction to Ideas of Self and the Afterlife in World Religions”

2013 | ISBN-10: 1405153717, 1405153709 | 280 pages | PDF | 5 MB

A comprehensive survey of how religions understand death, dying, and the afterlife, drawing on examples from Christian, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, and Shamanic perspectives.
Considers shared and differing views of death across the world s major religions, including on the nature of death itself, the reasons for it, the identity of those who die, religious rituals, and on how the living should respond to death
Places emphasis on the varying concepts of the self or soul
Uses a thematic structure to facilitate a broader comparative understanding
Written in an accessible style to appeal to an undergraduate audience, it fills major gap in current textbook literature

John S. Wilkins, “Species: The Evolution of the Idea, Second Edition”

2018 | ISBN-10: 1138055743 | 427 pages | EPUB | 3 MB

Over time the complex idea of “species” has evolved, yet its meaning is far from resolved. This comprehensive work is a fresh look at an idea central to the field of biology by tracing its history from antiquity to today. Species is a benchmark exploration and clarification of a concept fundamental to the past, present, and future of the natural sciences. In this edition, a section is added on the debate over species since the time of the New Synthesis, and brings the book up to date. A section on recent philosophical debates over species has also been added. This edition is better suited non-specialists in philosophy, so that it will be of greater use for scientists wishing to understand how the notion came to be that living organisms form species.

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